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New Testament vs Historical Timeline
Created for UMC Millington on the Fox
(Version Apr 07 2013)
Legend:
New Testament
Roman
Christian Church
Secular
Islamic
The Roman Empire was divided by Diocletian in 285;
into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern
Roman Empire ( widely known as the Byzantine Empire.)
Rome ceased to be the capital from the time of the
division. In 286, the capital of the Western Roman
Empire became Mediolanum (modern Milan). The
capital was moved again in 402, this time to Ravenna.
The Western Empire existed intermittently in several
periods between the 3rd century and 5th century, after
Diocletian's Tetrarchy and the reunifications associated
with Constantine the Great and Julian the Apostate (324-
363). Theodosius I (379-395) was the last Roman
Emperor who ruled over a unified Roman empire. After
his death in 395, the Roman Empire was permanently
divided. The Western Roman Empire ended officially
with the abdication of Romulus Augustus under pressure
of Odoacer in 476.
As the Western Roman Empire fell, a new era began in
Western European history: the Middle Ages and more
specifically the Dark Ages.
The First Council of Nicaea was convened in Nicaea in Bithynia
(Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325 AD.
The purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements arising from
within the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in
relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was of the
same substance as God the Father or merely of similar substance.
St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position; the
popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arian controversy
comes, took the second. The council decided against the Arians
overwhelmingly (of the estimated 250–318 attendees, all but two
voted against Arius
Eusebius describes in his "Life of Constantine" how the site of the
Holy Sepulchre, originally a site of veneration for the Christian
community in Jerusalem, had been covered with earth, upon which a
temple of Venus had been built. Although Eusebius does not say as
much, this was probably done as part of Hadrian's reconstruction of
Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina in 135, following the destruction of
the Jewish Revolt of 70 and Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132–135.
Emperor Constantine I ordered in about 325/326 that the site be
uncovered, and instructed Saint Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, to
build a church on the site. Constantine's mother Saint Helena had
been directed by her son to build churches upon sites which
commemorated the life of Jesus Christ, so the Church of the Holy
Sepulchre commemorated the death and resurrection of Jesus, just
as the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (also founded by
Constantine and Helena) commemorated his birth.
Arians were inspired by Arius (a presbyter from
Alexandria, Egypt , ca. AD 250––336) and his
teachings; they thought that Jesus was "like" God the
Father; in other words, he taught that God the Father
and the Son did not exist together eternally. All these
non-Nicenes were frequently labeled as Arians (i.e.,
followers of Arius) by their opponents. Arius was first
ruled a heretic at the First Council of Nicea, later
exonerated and then pronounced a heretic again after
his death.
Leo increased his personal
prestige, as well as that of his
office as Roman bishop, when he
persuaded Attila the Hun to turn
back from Rome (452) and later
managed to minimize the damage
done to the city when it was
captured by Gaiseric (455); the
Roman bishop was beginning to
act as a civil ruler.
The title of Pope (from Latin: "papa" or "father" from Greek
pápas) was from the early third century an honorific
designation used for any bishop in the West. In the East it
was used only for the Bishop of Alexandria. From the 6th
century, the imperial chancery of Constantinople normally
reserved it for the Bishop of Rome. From the early sixth
century it began to be confined in the West to the Bishop of
Rome, a practice that was firmly in place by the eleventh
century.
The Hagia Sophia is famous in particular for its massive dome, it is
considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture. It was the largest
cathedral ever built in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the
completion of the Seville Cathedral in 1520. The current building was
originally constructed as a church between A.D. 532 and 537 on the
orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in fact the third
Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site (the previous two had
both been destroyed by riots). It was designed by two architects, Isidore
of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles. The Church contained a large
collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 50 foot
silver iconostasis. It was the patriarchal church of the Patriarch of
Constantinople and the religious focal point of the Eastern Orthodox
Church for nearly 1000 years.
In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and
Sultan Mehmed II ordered the building to be converted into a mosque.
The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed, and
many of the mosaics were eventually plastered over. The Islamic
features — such as the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets
outside — were added over the course of its history under the
Ottomans. It remained as a mosque until 1935, when it was converted
into a museum by the Republic of Turkey.
The Council of Jerusalem was a conference of the Christian
Apostles in Jerusalem in about ad 50 which decreed that Gentile
Christians did not have to observe the Mosaic Law of the Jews. It
was occasioned by the insistence of certain Judaic Christians
from Jerusalem that Gentile Christians from Antioch in Syria
obey the Mosaic custom of circumcision. A delegation, led by the
apostle Paul and his companion Barnabas, was appointed to
confer with the elders of the church in Jerusalem.
Gladiator (2000) won
5 Oscars; Maximus
character was
fictional
The Dome of the Rock is located at an ancient man-made platform known as the
Temple Mount. The platform, greatly enlarged under the rule of Herod the Great, is
the site of the Second Jewish Temple which was destroyed during the Roman Siege
of Jerusalem in 70 AD. In 637 AD, Jerusalem was conquered by the Rashidun
Caliphate army during the Islamic invasion of the Byzantine Empire.
The Dome of the Rock was erected between 685 and 691 AD. Umayyad Caliph Abd
al-Malik ibn Marwan who initiated construction of the Dome, hoped that it would
“house the Muslims from cold and heat” and intended the building to serve as a
shrine for pilgrims and not as a mosque for public worship. Historians contend that
the Caliph wished to create a structure which would compete with the existing
buildings of other religions in the city.
Islam is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad. The word Islam means "submission", or the total surrender of oneself to God
(Allah). An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning "one who submits [to God]".
Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad, God's final prophet, through the
angel Gabriel, and regard the Qur'an and the Sunnah (words and deeds of Muhammad) as the
fundamental sources of Islam. They do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion,
but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other
prophets. Islamic tradition holds that Jews and Christians distorted the revelations God gave to
these prophets by either altering the text, introducing a false interpretation, or both.
Augustine of Hippo (AD 354-430) converted to
Christianity from Manichaeism, in the year 387. This
was shortly after the Roman Emperor Theodosius I
had issued a decree of death for Manichaeans in AD
382 and shortly before he declared Christianity to be
the only legitimate religion for the Roman Empire in
391. According to his Confessions, after eight or nine
years of adhering to the Manichaean faith as a
member of the group of "hearers", Augustine became
a Christian and a potent adversary of Manichaeism,
seeing their beliefs that knowledge was the key to
salvation as too passive and not able to effect any
change in one's life
0005 BC
4 - 6; Jesus born in
Bethlehem
0004 BC
Herod the Great dies
0014
Tiberius Caesar becomes
emperor upon death of
Augustus
0026
Pontius Pilot
appointed governor
0026 - 0030
26 - 30; Duration of
Jesus' Ministry
0030
30; Jesus is Crucified,
Dies and is
Resurrected
0034
Martyrdom of Stephen (Acts 7)
0035
Conversion of Saul (Paul) of Tarsus
(Acts 8-9)
0037
Tiberius dies and his
adopted grandson,
Caligula, succeeds
him
0038
Peter Baptizes First
Gentile (Acts 10)
0041
Caligula assassinated,
Claudius becomes
Emperor
0045
c 45 -50; James
written
0046 - 0048
Period of Apostle
Paul's First Missionary
Journey
0048
Churches of Galatia
founded
0049
Galatians written from Antioch
to southern Galatia
0049 - 0052
Period of Apostle Paul's Second
Missionary Journey
0050
Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15)
0051
1 & 2 Thessalonians
written from Corinth to
church at Thessalonica
0051
Paul establishes churches at Corinth and Philippi
0052 - 0056
Period of
Apostle Paul's
Third Missionary
Journey
0053
Claudius is poisoned, Nero becomes Emperor
0054
Church at
Ephesus founded
0055
1 Corinthians written
from Ephesus to the
church of Corinth
0056
II Corinthians written
from Macedonia to the
church of Corinth
0057
Romans written from
Corinth to church at
Rome
0058
Paul’s trial before
Festus (Acts 25:7-12)
0058 - 0060
Period of
Apostle Paul's
Journey to
Rome
0060
1 Peter written
0060
Colossians,
Philippians
and Ephesians
written from
prison in
Rome c. 60 -
62
0063
1 Timothy written from
Macedonia
0064
Fires destroy half of
Rome; Nero blames
Christians and begins
persecutions
0065
2 Peter written
0065
Jude written c. mid 60's
0066
First Jewish Revolt against
Roman rule in Judaea
0067
Death of Peter
0067
Death of Paul
0067
Hebrews written
0068
A military coup drives
Nero from the throne.
Facing execution, he
commits suicide (age
30).
0068
c. 68 -73; Gospel of Mark
0069
Vespasian becomes
emperor after
succession of short-
lived emperors
0070
Roman General Titus
destroys Jerusalem
0070
c. 70 -100; Gospel of
Matthew
0075
Josephus writes about the
Jewish revolt in "The
Jewish War"
0079
Titus becomes
emperor upon death
of his father
Vespasian
0080
Colosseum opens in
Rome
0080
c. 80 -100; Gospel of
Luke
0081
Titus dies at age 41
and is succeeded by
his younger brother
Domitian
0085 - 0090
1,2,3 John written
from Ephesus
0090
c. 90 - 100; Gospel of
John
0095
c. 65 - 95; Revelation
written
0096
Roman emperor
Domitian assassinated;
Nerva succeeds
0098
Roman emperor
Nerva dies; Trajan
succeeds
0113
Trajan's Column
erected in newly
rebuilt Roman Forum
0115
Emperor Trajan
expands the Roman
frontier to the Tigris
River
0117
Roman emperor Trajan dies;
After series of revolts,
Hadrian succeeds
0122
Hadrian's Wall built in
Britain
0132
c. 132-135; Jewish
Rebellion in Jerusalem
0135
Hadrian orders
destruction of
Jerusalem and
enforces a diaspora
of the Jews
0155
Martyrdom of Polycarp,
an early Christian
bishop in Smyrna; His
Letter to the
Philippians among
earliest Christian
writings to survive
0165
Justin was martyred in Rome; he
was an early Christian apologist
(writer defending the Christian faith)
and saint. His works represent the
earliest surviving Christian
"apologies" of notable size.
0180
Roman emperor
Marcus Aurelius dies;
Commodus his son
succeeds; 180 -192
0197
Approximate date of
Tertullian's conversion to
Christianity; the"father of
latin theology"; Introduced
the term Trinity (trinitas) into
Christian theology
0225
c. 225; Early form of
gunpowder developed
in China
0275
c. 275; Antony of Egypt begins
hermetic life of study; Beginning
of Christian Monasticism; he
gave away all his earthly
possessions in order to serve
Christ free from distraction.
0276
Mani executed;
Teachings will become
Manichaeism, which
combines Christian
salvation and
Zoroastrian dualism
0285
Diocletian becomes
Roman emperor;
Begins administrative
division of Eastern
and Western Roman
Empire
0303
Roman emperor Diocletian
begins the Great Persecution of
Christians and Manicheans in
the empire
0312
Constantine defeats
Maxentius at battle of
Milvian Bridge;
Becomes sole
emperor in the
Western Roman
Empire
0313
Constantine issues the Edict of Milan
granting official toleration to Christianity in
the Roman Empire
0314
Eusebius of Caesarea became the bishop of
Caesarea Palaestina. He is often referred to as
the Father of Church History because of his
work in recording the history of the early
Christian church
0320
Pachomius
establishes first
monastic, ascetic
community in Egypt
0321
Constantine I
decrees that
Sunday (dies
Solis) will be
observed as the
Roman day of
rest
0325
First Ecumenical Council (Nicaea):
summoned, and presided over, by
the Emperor Constantine. He
presented a formula of faith which
was adopted. He was not a
Christian. He ordered the
enforcement of the decrees of the
Council on all Christians.
0330
Construction
begins on Old St.
Peter's Basilica
in Rome
0330
Constantinople made
capital of Roman
Empire
0335
The Church of the
Holy Sepulchre is
consecrated in
Jerusalem
0337
Roman emperor
Constantine dies;
Three sons succeed
0341
Coptic Christianity
introduced to Ethiopia
0348
Ulfilas, Bishop of the
Goths, translates the
Bible from Greek into
the Gothic language.
For this he devised
the Gothic alphabet.
0363
Roman Empire
redivided into Eastern
and Western halves
0378
Theodosius I was Roman
Emperor from 378 to 395;
he reunited the eastern
and western portions of
the empire, Theodosius
was the last emperor of
both the Eastern and
Western Roman Empire.
After his death, the two
parts split permanently.
0378
Visigoth cavalry destroys Roman
army and kills emperor Valens at
battle of Adrianople
0379
Theodosius
makes treaty with
Visigoths as
military allies of
Rome
0380
Theodosius I establishes Catholic
Christianity as the official state
religion of the Roman Empire
0381
First Council of
Constantinople,
called by
Theodosius I,
which confirmed
the Nicene Creed
and dealt with
other matters
such as Arian
controversy.
0382
Jerome, former
secretary of Pope
Damasus, began to
translate the entire
Bible into Latin
(The Latin
Vulgate).
0390
Bishop Ambrose of Milan
(373-397) compelled the
Emperor Theodosius I
('the Great') to do public
penance for having
ordered the execution of
his political enemies ('the
Massacre at
Thessalonike').
0391
Celebration of pagan
sacrifices and other
pagan rites forbidden.
0397
Augustine's
Confessions
0397
John Chrysostom
chosen as bishop of
Constantinople;
known as the greatest
of Christian preachers
0400
c. 400 -450;
Saxons and
Angles invade
Britain
0402
Western Roman
capital moved to
Ravenna
0406
Vandals
invade Gaul,
sacking
numerous
Roman cities
0408
The Emperors Arcadius, Honorius
and Theodosius II confirmed the
judicial authority of bishops, and
authorized the execution of their
judgments by civil officials.
0409
Revolt in Britain marks
the end of Roman rule
0410
Visigoths under King Alaric attacks
Rome and pillages the city for 3 days;
first time in 800 years that Rome had
been taken by foreign enemy; Jerome,
far away in his Bethlehem monastery,
wept
0411
Augustine's The City
of God
0415
Pagans barred from
military and civil
offices
0431
Council of Ephesus
exiles Nestorius;
Emergence of cult of
the Virgin Mary
0433
Attila becomes leader
of the Huns
0433
Patrick begins his
ministry in Ireland
0440
Leo "The Great"
becomes bishop of
Rome
0451
Attila and Huns
defeated in Gaul at
battle of Chalons; Last
great military
campaign by Western
Roman Empire
0452
Attila invades Italy
0452
Venice founded
0453
Attila dies; Huns
expelled from Italy
0455
The Vandals lead by
Gaiseric, attacks
Rome; sacks city for
14 days
0473
King Euric of the
Visigoths declares
Gaul independent of
Roman rule
0476
The barbarian Roman army in Italy
revolts, lead by the Goth Odoacer
who deposes last Roman emperor
Romulus Augustus and becomes
King of Italy; Formal end of the
Western Roman Empire;
Traditional date for the beginning
of the Middle Ages in Europe
0490
c. 490 - 510; The
legendary Arthur, may
have been the last
successful military
leader of Britain and
its churches against
the pagan invaders
0529
Church of the Nativity
in Bethlehem built by
Emperor Justinian
over the traditional
site of Jesus' birth
0529
Benedict of Nursia
founds monastic order
at Monte Casino
0537
Hagia Sophia
completed and
dedicated in
Constantinople
0540
Benedict of Nursia
writes Regula
Benedicti (Rule of St.
Benedict) to regulate
daily life in the
monastary under the
authority of an abbot.
0563
Columba leaves
Ireland determined to
"go on pilgrimage for
Christ"; sails to island
of Iona on west coast
of Scotland and
establishes monastery
0590
Gregory I becomes first monk elected pope;
Lays down principles of papal authority over
secular rulers; Gregory is credited with re-
energizing the Church's missionary work
among the barbarian peoples of northern
Europe. He is most famous for sending a
mission under Augustine of Canterbury to
evangelize the pagan Anglo-Saxons of
England. The mission was successful, and it
was from England that missionaries later set
out for the Netherlands and Germany.
0603
First St. Paul's
Cathedral built in
London
0610
Muhammad begins
preaching in Mecca
0622
Muhammad forced to
flee Mecca for Medina;
Becomes basis for
Islamic tradition of the
hijra
0630
Muhammad returns to
Mecca with the Koran
0632
Muhammad dies
0637
Islamic forces capture
Jerusalem
0661
Caliph Ali assassinated; Sunni
and Shi'a branches of Islam
split over succession to the
Caliphate
0680
Hussein killed at battle
of Karbala; Battlefield
will become site for
Shiite holy city
0685
Construction on the
Dome of the Rock
begins
0711
Islamic army
invades Iberian
Peninsula
0756
Donation of Pepin
creates Papal
States and
establishes temporal
power of the papacy
0768
Pepin the Short
(King of the Franks)
dies; succeeded by
his son
Charlemagne
("Charles the
Great")
0800
Pope Leo III crowns
Charlemagne
Emperor of the
Romans
0836
Vikings sack London
0841
Vikings found Dublin
in Ireland
0843
Kenneth MacAlpin
unites Scots and Picts,
founding the medieval
kingdom of Scotland
0862
Byzantine emperor
Michael III sends Cyril
and Methodius to
convert slavs; Origin
of Cyrillic alphabet
0886
Alfred the Great
expels the Vikings
from London;
Establishes the
Danelaw
0911
Viking leader Rollo
converts to
Christianity and pays
homage to Charles III
of France; Origin of
the Duchy of
Normandy
0962
Otto I crowned Holy
Roman emperor by
Pope John XII;
Beginning of the Holy
Roman Empire
0982
Eric the Red begins
viking invasion of
Iceland
0988
Vladimir the Great of
Kiev converts to
Christianity;
Foundation of
Russian Orthodox
Church
0993
Pope John XV
canonizes Ulric,
bishop of Augsburg;
First documented
papal canonization
1003
Approximate date of
Leif Ericson's voyages
from Greenland
1018
Council of Pavia;
Pope Benedict VIII
declares clerical
marriage and
concubinage illegal
1054
Pope Leo IX and the Patriarch
of Constantinople
excommunicate each other;
Final step in the Great Schism
between the Catholic and
Orthodox churches
1065
Westminster Abbey
consecrated
1066
William the Conqueror
defeats Harold at the
battle of Hastings;
Normans conquer
England
1075
Pope Gregory VII
decrees papal
supremacy in Dictatus
papae; Beginning of
Investiture
Controversy between
the Pope and Holy
Roman Emperor
1078
Construction on the
Tower of London
begins
1095
Pope Urban II
proclaims First
Crusade against
Islamic conquests in
the Middle East
1099
Crusaders capture
Jerusalem; First
Crusade ends