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Old Testament vs Secular Historical Timeline
Created for Millington UMC on the Fox Aug 07 2013.
7 Wonders of the Ancient World
Jacob's name change
to Israel. He has 12
sons, for whom the 12
Tribes of Israel are
BRONZE AGE 3000 - 1200 BC
The term Bronze Age refers to a period in
human cultural development when the
most advanced metalworking (at least in
systematic and widespread use) included
techniques for smelting copper and tin
from naturally-occurring outcroppings of
copper and tin ores, creating a bronze
alloy by melting those metals together,
and casting them into bronze artifacts.
Hammurabi Code -
The structure of the code is very specific, with
each offense receiving a specified punishment.
The punishments tended to be harsh by
modern standards, with many offenses
resulting in death, disfigurement, or the use of
the "Eye for eye, tooth for tooth"
IRON AGE 1200 - 500 BC
The Iron Age was the stage in the
development of any people in which
tools and weapons whose main
ingredient was iron were prominent. No
firm ending date is set for the Iron Age in
any particular society; there is simply a
point where archaeology becomes less
important than surviving history and
traditions.The Iron Age is usually said to
end in the Mediterranean with the onset
of historical tradition during Hellenism
and the Roman Empire. Iron alloys
remain popular as the steels in most
metallic objects.
The Iliad
Divided into 24 books, the Iliad tells of the wrath
of Achilles and its tragic consequences, an
episode in the Trojan War. The action is in
several sections. Achilles quarrels with
Agamemnon over possession of the captive
woman Briseis, and Achilles retires from the war
to sulk in his tent. The Greek position gradually
weakens until Agamemnon offers amendment to
Achilles (Books I–IX). Book X tells of an
expedition by Odysseus and Diomedes leading
to Greek reverses in the war. Thereupon
Patroclus, Achilles' friend, is inspired to go into
battle wearing Achilles' armor. He is killed by
Hector (Books XI–XVII).
Book XVIII tells of the visit of Thetis, mother of
Achilles, to comfort her grieving son and of the
forging of new armor by Hephaestus for Achilles.
Achilles then determines to avenge his friend,
kills Hector, buries Patroclus, and finally, at the
entreaty of Priam, gives Hector's body to the
Trojan hero's aged father (Books XIX–XXIV).
The Odyssey
The Odyssey is written in 24 books and begins nearly ten years after the
fall of Troy. In the first part, Telemachus, Odysseus' son, visits Nestor at
Pylos and Menelaus at Sparta, seeking news of his absent father. He
tells them of the troubles of his mother, Penelope, who is beset by
mercenary suitors. Menelaus informs him that his father is with the
nymph Calypso (Books I–IV). The scene then shifts to Mt. Olympus with
an account of Zeus' order to Calypso to release Odysseus, who then
builds a raft and sails to Phaeacia. There he is entertained by King
Alcinoüs and his daughter Nausicaä; he relates to them the story of his
wanderings in which he has encountered Polyphemus, Aeolus, Circe,
Scylla and Charybdis, the Sirens, the Laestrygones, and the lotus-
eaters (Books V–XII).
Dramatic tension mounts with the return of Odysseus and Telemachus
to Ithaca; together they plan and execute the death of the suitors.
Afterward Odysseus makes himself known to his wife and his father,
with whose aid he repulses the suitors' angry kinsmen. Athena
intervenes, peace is restored, and Odysseus once again rules his
country (Books XIII–XXIV). The atmosphere of adventure and fate in the
Odyssey contrasts with the heavier tone and tragic grandeur of the Iliad.
The Septuagint or simply "LXX", is the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in
stages between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC in Alexandria. It is the oldest of several
ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible into the Greek language. The word septuaginta
means "seventy" in Latin and derives from a tradition that seventy (or seventy-two)
Jewish scholars translated the Pentateuch (Torah) from Hebrew into Greek for Ptolemy II
Philadelphus, 285–246 BC.
Altering the national god was a
political tactic. The priests who
controlled the various shrines and
towns fought to gain political power
over the pharoah.
The real Spartacus was a Thracian
and a former Roman soldier. The
movie won 4 Oscars in 1961. Peter
Ustinov was the only actor to win
an Oscar.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were a formal writing
system used by the ancient Egyptians that
combined logographic and alphabetic
elements. A logograph is a grapheme or
symbol which represents a word.
The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek
adjective (hieroglyphikos),a compound of
(hierós 'sacred') and (glýpho 'I carve,
engrave'). The glyphs themselves were
called (tà hieroglyphikà grámmata 'the
sacred engraved letters'). The word
hieroglyph has become a noun in English,
standing for an individual hieroglyphic
character. The word hieroglyphic is an
adjective, but is often erroneously used as
a noun in place of hieroglyph.
Cuneiform writing began
as a system of
pictographs. Documents
were written on clay
tablets, by means of a
blunt reed for a stylus. The
impressions left by the
stylus were wedge
shaped, thus giving rise
to the name cuneiform
"wedge shaped", from the
Latin cuneus "wedge".
The Phoenecian alphabet was a non-
pictographic consonantal alphabet or
abjad. (An abjad records only
consonantal sounds.) Letters were
usually written right to left. It contained
about two dozen distinct letters,
making it a simple script for common
traders to learn. It could be used to
write down many different languages
since it recorded words phonemically.
The Greek alphabet was derived from the
earlier Phoenician alphabet and the order
and names of the letters are derived from
Phoenician. The original Canaanite
meanings of the letter names was lost when
the alphabet was adapted for Greek. For
example, 'alpha' comes from the Canaanite
'aleph' (ox) and 'beta' from 'beth' (house).
The Greek alphabet was the first alphabet that
had written symbols for both vowel and
consonant sounds. It was originally written in
lines alternating either right to left, or
alternating right to left then left to right or
'boustrohedon' (ox - turning). Around 500 BC
it changed to left to right only.
8350 BC
Earliest known walled
city at Jericho
7500 BC
of textiles in
the Middle
East using
6200 BC
smelting in
Asia Minor
4500 BC
Sail, plow,
and potter's
invented in
4300 BC
c. 4300-3100;
Spread of
cities in
4000 BC
3650 BC
vehicles in
3400 BC
Earliest hieroglyphics
in Egypt
3200 BC
Menes of Thinis
unites Upper and
lower Egypt;
Menes makes the
sky god of upper
Egypt , Horus, the
national god and
claimed to be the
incarnation of
3000 BC
Sumerians develop
Cuneiform writing
2750 BC
c 3,000 - 2,500;
domesticated in
Middle East
2680 BC
Great Pyramid in
Giza completed,
one of Seven
Wonders of the
Ancient World
2600 BC
Epic of Gilgamesh is
first written myth
2566 BC
Khufu (Cheops in Greek) buried in
1st great pyramid at Giza; Khufu's
full name was "Khnum-Khufu" which
means "the god Khnum protects
2500 BC
settle along
coast of
2400 BC
2334 BC
c. 2334-2193;
Sargon unifies
Sumer and
2166 BC
Abraham born
2100 BC
First Ziggurats in
2066 BC
Isaac born
2006 BC
Jacob & Esau
2000 BC
Amenemet I of Thebes
becomes pharaoh; makes
Amun, the god of Thebes
(upper Egypt), the national god;
for more than 200 years the
Amenemhet and Senwosret
pharaohs used Thebes as their
central seat of power and
worshiped Amun as the "king of
1915 BC
1898 BC
Joseph sold into
slavery (Gen 37:5-28)
1792 BC
Hammurabi, becomes
king of Babylon,
develops "Code of
Hammurabi , oldest
existing code of laws
1730 BC
Hyksos (:foreign rulers") seize
control of Egypt and make Heliopolis
their new capital; Adopt the local
god of Heliopolis, Re, as the
national god of their new kingdom;
Re is another sun god; Hyksos
actually only control lower Egypt;
Hebrews bondage begins
1575 BC
King Kamose of Thebes breaks the power
of the Hyksos in Egypt and unites the nation
under the city of Thebes once again;
Kamose with his successor and brother
Ahmose reform religion of Egypt, revive the
worship of Amun; combine it with the
religion of Re, and name a new national
god Amun-Re; Ahmose marries his sister,
Princess Ahmose-Nofretari, and claims she
was the wife of Amun; This gives both of
them spiritual prestige.
1546 BC
Ahmose's son, Amenhotep I,
succeeds him; names himself after
Amun-Re and calls himself "Son of
Re"; gradually Egyptians came to
think of the pharaohs as gods in
the flesh and worship them as
such.Other pharaohs follow the
custom of naming themselves after
Amun-Re (Amenophis,
1526 BC
Moses born
1504 BC
Thutmose II dies; Egyptian history
says he "went forth and mingled
with the gods." Succeeded by
Hatshepsut, the first and only
Egyptian woman to do so; calls
herself "Daughter of Re"; she is
succeeded by her son Thutmose III
1500 BC
Phoenicia conquered
by Egypt (Thutmoses
1446 BC
Exodus from Egypt;
ruler was the "pharaoh
who did not know
Joseph" (Exod. 1:8)
1407 BC
Moses dies;
1375 BC
Judges begin
to rule
1375 BC
Amenhotep IV
succeeds Amenhotep
III, shuns the worship
of Amun-Re in favor of
the sun god, Aton. He
renames himself
Akhnaton and moves
capital to Amarna. His
queen is Nefertiti.
1366 BC
Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton) dies
and is succeeded by
Tutankhamen, "Tut" moves
capital back to Thebes and
restores Amen-re as the leading
god of nation. Tut's tomb
contained many symbols of
Osiris, the god of the dead;
Osiris worship becoming more
1319 BC
Rameses I and his son,
Sethi I, begin new dynasty,
move capital to Karnak; still
considering Amun-Re to be
their chief god, they raise
the worship of Osiris to new
level of royal favor. Sethi I
begins new wars of
conquest that pushed into
Canaan, driving out the
1279 BC
c. 1279 - 1213; Ancient city of Pi-Ramesses
built during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses
II (ruled 1279 - 1213); Hebrews ordered to
build two cities, Pithom and Ramesses
(Exodus 1:11) Ramesses is likely Pi-
1264 BC
hero Heracles
1228 BC
Sea Peoples (
Sherden, Sheklesh,
Tursha and Akawasha
(Achaeans)) allied
themselves with the
Libyans in attempt to
invade Egypt
1213 BC
Rameses II choses his
son, Merneptah to
succeed him;
Merneptah dispatched
a punitive expedition
to Canaan as a show
of his new authority
1208 BC
Egyptian victory monument,
"Merneptah Stele" or "Israel
Stela", and the Bible both
place the Israelites in
Canaan, earliest known
intersection between
science and scripture;
Merneptah describes his
victories "... carried off is
Ashkelon; seized upon
Gezer; Yanoam is made as
that which does not exist;
Israel is laid waste, his
seed is not ..."
1200 BC
c. 1200 - 1150;
Greece invaded by
backward northern
tribes called Dorians;
starts 250 years of
Dark Age
1198 BC
Rameses III fights off
invasions by "People
of the Sea" (Philistines
who landed on
Mediterranean shores
of Egypt);
1193 BC
Greeks destroy
Troy; end of 9
year Trojan War
1167 BC
Rameses III dies at
hand of assasin;
successors slowly lose
grip on government as
the priest of Amun
gains prestige
1105 BC
Samuel born
1100 BC
Phoenician alphabet evolves
from the Cuneiform and
Egyptian hieroglyph based
Proto-Canaanite and Proto-
Sinaitic alphabets
1085 BC
Hrihor takes throne from Rameses XI and
begins new pattern in Egyptian government;
each pharaoh appoints one of his sons to
become high priest of Amun as the boy's first
step to the throne; the royal family uses the
influence of Amun to assert their authority.
1075 BC
Sampson leads
1050 BC
Saul becomes king
1003 BC
David made king
1000 BC
The first alphabet
used to write Hebrew
emerges during late
2nd and early 1st
millennia BC. It is
closely related to the
Phoenician alphabet.
0970 BC
Solomon made king
0966 BC
Solomon begins to
build the Temple in
Jerusalem (1 Ki 6: 1)
0960 BC
Egyptian empire gradually
disintegrates and princes of
Nubia carve out the southern
territory with capital in Napata;
Egypt's troubles much like
Israel's during this time, both
had divided kingdoms; King of
Libya topples weak pharaohs
of Thebes
0930 BC
The kingdom is divided
(1 Ki 12: 16-20)
0925 BC
Libyan King Sheshonk
I, defeats King
Rehoboam and sacks
the temple in
Jerusalem (1 Kin
0900 BC
Phoenicians colonize
Spain w/ settlement at
0900 BC
c. 900 - 800 Nubian
(Ethiopian) princes
move down the Nile
and defeat the
Libyan kings
0880 BC
c. 880 - 853 Zerah (most likely
Osorkon II or Osorkon I) attacks
Judah with an enormous army as he
marched through to secure eastern
border with Assyria; Asa soundly
defeated him (2 Chron . 14-13)
0875 BC
Elijah begins his ministry
(1 Ki 17: 1-6)
0874 BC
Ahab becomes king
(1Ki 16: 29-33)
0810 BC
Phoenicians establish
settlement in Carthage
0800 BC
The Iliad & the
Odyssey written by
Greek poet Homer
0800 BC - 0750 BC
Greek alphabet evolves from
Phoenician alphabet about
800 BC to 750 BC
0785 BC
Jonah preaches
to Nineveh
(Jonah 3:1 -5)
0772 BC
Construction begins on
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus,
one of Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World
0753 BC
Rome founded by
"Romulus &
Remus" according
to legend
0742 BC
Micah becomes a
prophet (Mic 5: 2)
0740 BC
becomes a
(Isa 7: 13-14)
0722 BC
Northern kingdom
falls to Assyrian king
Sargon II; Lost 10
Tribes (
2 Ki 17: 5-13)
0713 BC
Sargon II suppresses
uprising in the
Philistine city of
Ashdod (Isaiah 20:1)
0670 BC
Assyrians march into
Egypt and overthrow
the Ethiopian
0663 BC
Prince Psamtik of Sais
drives Assyrians out
of Egypt;
reestablishes Amun-
Re as the national
0627 BC
becomes a
(Jer 25:8-11)
0621 BC
Athenian leader Draco has
existing laws put in writing and
institutes "Draconian" penalties
for crimes
0612 BC
Babylonians sack
Nineveh; Assyrian power
0610 BC
Necho succeeds his father Psamtik I as Pharaoh.
Recognizing the growing menance of Babylon, he
marches through Canaan in order to help the
Assyrians fight the common enemy. King Josiah tried
to stop him at Meggiddo, but Necho defeated him and
continued on his march. 2 Kings 23:29-30).
0605 BC
Nebuchandnezzar destroys the
Egyptian army at Carchemish
on the Euphrates River. Necho
escapes, captures the new king
of Judah, Jehoahaz, and made
Judah a buffer state between
Babylon and Egypt (2 Chron.
0601 BC
attacks Judah; Egypt
was able to stop him
temporarily; Pharaoh
Apries encourages
King Jehoiakin to
resist the Babylonian
0600 BC
Gardens of
Babylon, built by
II, one of Seven
Wonders of the
Ancient World
0600 BC
Greeks build the
Acropolis in Athens
0586 BC
Nebuchadnezzar II of
Babylon destroys
Jerusalem; Temple
destroyed; Babylonian
Captivity of the Jews
0586 BC
installs Gedaliah as
governor of the new
Judean province;
Gedaliah's subjects
murder him within a
few months (2 Kings
25:25); afraid that the
Babylonians would
slaughter them in
revenge, the
remaining Jews of
Jerusalem fled to
Egypt; among them
was the prophet
Jeremiah (Jer. 43:5-7)
0582 BC
Pythagoras, c.
582 -507
0563 BC
founded by
0553 BC
c. 553; Death of
monotheism and
become official
religion of
Persian Empire
0539 BC
Cyrus the
Great of
Babylon (Ezr
0509 BC
Rome becomes
a republic
0499 BC
Ionian Revolt marks
beginning of Persian-
Greek Wars
0496 BC
Sophocles - Greek
dramatist 496 - 406
0495 BC
c. 495-483;
0490 BC
Persians at
Battle of
0486 BC
Persian king Darius dies
and is succeeded by his
son Xerxes
0484 BC
Herodotus of
484 – 425 BC,
Father of
and History
0480 BC
Spartan army under King Leonidas defeated by
Xerxes and Persian army at Battle of
0480 BC
Athenian navy defeats Persian
fleet near island of Salamis
0479 BC
Esther becomes Xerxes
queen (Est 2: 17-18)
0460 BC
Hippocrates - Greek
"Father of Medicine"
0458 BC
Nehemia takes a small
contingent of Jews back to
Palestine (Ne 4:4-9)
0447 BC
Building of
0443 BC
Nehemiah and Ezra read the
Scriptures to the Jews (Ne 8:18)
0432 BC
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
constructed, one of Seven
Wonders of the Ancient World
0431 BC
Peloponnesian War
starts between Sparta
and Athens, 431 - 404
0400 BC
Pentatuch - 1st five
books of OT evolve in
final form, 400 -300
0399 BC
to death
0386 BC
Aristotle, Greek
philosopher 386 - 322
0359 BC
king of
0353 BC
The Mausoleum at
Halicarnassus built as
tomb for Mausolus,
one of Seven
Wonders of the
Ancient World
0336 BC
succeeded by
son Alexander
the Great
0332 BC
Alexander conquers
Tyre and Jerusalem
0330 BC
0323 BC
Alexander dies, empire is divided among
his generals, Seleucus, Antigonus &
0304 BC
Construction begins on
The Colossus of
Rhodes, one of Seven
Wonders of the
Ancient World
0285 BC
Construction begins on
The Lighthouse of
Alexandria, one of
Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World
0285 BC
Septuagint begins to
be written
0264 BC
1st Punic War 264 -
241 BC
0219 BC
2nd Punic
War, 219 -
201 BC
0218 BC
Carthaginian general,
crosses the Alps on
march to Rome
0215 BC
Great Wall of China
0202 BC
Scipio Africanus
defeats Hannibal at
0191 BC
Romans defeat Seleucid King
Antiochus III at Thermopylae
beginning of Roman world
0169 BC
Temple in
plundered by
Antiochus IV
0167 BC
Maccabean revolt
against Seleucids
0149 BC
3rd Punic war, 149 - 146 BC,
Rome destroys Carthage
0146 BC
Greece falls to Roman
0071 BC
Spartacus leads
slave revolt against
0063 BC
Roman general
Pompey conquers
0055 BC
Julius Caesar
invades Britain
0044 BC
Caesar murdered
(Ides of March)
0037 BC
Herod made Roman
governor of Judea
0031 BC
Caesar's nephew,
Octavian, defeats
Mark Anthony and
Cleopatra at Battle
of Actium
0027 BC
Roman Pantheon built
0027 BC
Octavian becomes first
Roman emperor,
changes name to
Augustus, initiates era of
Pax Romana
0005 BC
Jesus born in